High purity copper is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity as a building material. As a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. High purity copper has the ultimate strength of approximately 210 MPa, and a yield strength of 33 Mpa, which limits its usability in industrial applications. But similarly, as for other alloys, copper may be strengthened. The main strengthening mechanism is alloying in Cu-based alloys.
Copper alloys are based on copper, in which the main alloying elements are Zn, Sn, Si, Al, and Ni. Cu-based alloys constitute mostly substitutional solid solutions, for which solute or impurity atoms replace or substitute for the host atoms. Several features of the solute and solvent atoms determine the degree to which the former dissolves in the latter. These are expressed as the Hume–Rothery rules. There are as many as 400 different copper and copper alloy compositions loosely grouped into the categories: copper, high copper alloy, brasses, bronzes, copper nickels, copper–nickel–zinc (nickel silver), leaded copper, and special alloys. In addition, a limited number of copper alloys can be strengthened by heat treatment.; consequently, cold working and/or solid-solution alloying must be used to improve these mechanical properties.
Properties of Copper
Copper is a soft, tough, ductile, and malleable material, and these properties make copper extremely suitable for tube forming, wire drawing, spinning, and deep drawing. The other key properties exhibited by copper and its alloys include:
- Excellent thermal conductivity. Copper has a 60% higher thermal conductivity rating than aluminium, so it is better to reduce thermal hot spots in electrical wiring systems. The electrical and thermal conductivities of metals originate from their outer electrons beingdelocalized.
- Excellent electrical conductivity. The conductivity of copper is 97% that of silver. Due to its much lower cost and greater abundance, copper has traditionally been the standard material for electricity transmission applications. However, aluminium is usually used in overhead high-voltage power lines because it has about half the weight and lowers the cost of a comparable resistance copper cable. At a given temperature, metals’ thermal and electrical conductivities are proportional, but raising the temperature increases the thermal conductivity while decreasing the electrical conductivity. This behavior is quantified in the Wiedemann–Franz law.
- Good corrosion resistance. Copper does not react with water but slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide. Unlike the rust that forms on iron in moist air, it protects the underlying metal from further corrosion (passivation). Copper-nickel alloys, aluminium brass, and aluminium demonstrate superior resistance to saltwater corrosion.
- Good biofouling resistance
- Good machinability. Machining of copper is possible, although alloys are preferred for good machinability in creating intricate parts.
- Retention of mechanical and electrical properties at cryogenic temperatures
The bronzes are a family of copper-based alloys traditionally alloyed with tin but can refer to alloys of copper and other elements (e.g., aluminum, silicon, and nickel). Bronzes are somewhat stronger than the brasses, yet they still have a high degree of corrosion resistance. Generally, they are used when good tensile properties are required in addition to corrosion resistance. For example, beryllium copper attains any copper-based alloy’s greatest strength (1,400 MPa).
Historically, alloying copper with another metal, for example, tin, to make bronze was first practiced about 4000 years after the discovery of copper smelting and about 2000 years after “natural bronze” had come into general use. An ancient civilization is defined in the Bronze Age as producing bronze by smelting its copper and alloying it with tin, arsenic, or other metals. Bronze, or bronze-like alloys and mixtures, were used for coins over a longer period. Bronzes are still widely used for springs, bearings, bushings, automobile transmission pilot bearings, and similar fittings and are particularly common in small electric motors’ bearings. Brass and bronze are common engineering materials in modern architecture and are primarily used for roofing and facade cladding due to their visual appearance.
Types of Bronzes
As was written, bronzes are a family of copper-based alloys traditionally alloyed with tin but can refer to alloys of copper and other elements (e.g., aluminum, silicon, and nickel).
- Tin and Phosphor Bronze. Bronzes are a family of copper-based alloys traditionally alloyed with tin, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin. The addition of small amounts (0.01–0.45) of phosphorus further increases the hardness, fatigue resistance, and wear resistance. The addition of these alloyants leads to applications such as springs, fasteners, masonry fixings, shafts, valve spindles, gears, and bearings. Bronze is also the preferred metal for bells in the form of a high tin bronze alloy known colloquially as bell metal, which is about 23% tin. High tin bronze alloys are typically found in gears and high-strength bushing and bearing applications where high strength and heavy loads are present. Other applications for these alloys are pump impellers, piston rings, and steam fittings. For example, copper casting alloy UNS C90500 is a cast alloy of copper-tin, also known as gunmetal. Originally used chiefly for making guns, it has largely been replaced by steel.
- Silicon Bronze. Silicon bronze usually contains about 96 percent copper. Silicon bronze has a composition of Si: 2.80–3.80%, Mn: 0.50–1.30%, Fe: 0.80% max., Zn: 1.50% max., Pb: 0.05% max. Silicon bronzes have a good combination of strength and ductility, good corrosion resistance, and easy weldability. Silicon bronzes were developed originally for the chemical industry because of their exceptional resistance to corrosion in many liquids. They are used in architectural product applications such as:
- Door fittings
- Church doors
- Window frames
- Aluminium Bronze. The aluminum bronzes are a family of copper-based alloys that combine mechanical and chemical properties unmatched by any other alloy series. They contain about 5 to 12% of aluminium. In addition, aluminium bronzes also contain nickel, silicon, manganese, and iron. They have excellent strength, similar to low alloy steels, and excellent corrosion resistance, especially in seawater and similar environments, where the alloys often outperform many stainless steels. Their excellent resistance to corrosion results from the aluminium in the alloys, which reacts with atmospheric oxygen to form a thin, tough surface layer of alumina (aluminium oxide) which acts as a barrier to corrosion of the copper-rich alloy. They are found in wrought and cast form. Aluminium bronzes are usually golden in color. Aluminium bronzes are used in seawater applications that include:
- General sea water-related services
- Pipe fittings
- Pumps and valve components
- Heat exchangers
- Beryllium Bronze. Copper beryllium, also known as beryllium bronze, is a copper alloy with 0.5—3% beryllium. Copper beryllium is the hardest and strongest copper alloy (UTS up to 1,400 MPa) in fully heat treated, and cold worked conditions. It combines high strength with non-magnetic and non-sparking qualities. It is similar in mechanical properties to many high-strength alloy steels, but, compared to steels, it has better corrosion resistance. It has good thermal conductivity (210 W/m°C) 3-5 times more than tool steel. These high-performance alloys have long been used for non-sparking tools in the mining (coal mines), gas and petrochemical industries (oil rigs). Beryllium copper screwdrivers, pliers, wrenches, cold chisels, knives, and hammers are available for these environments. Because of the excellent fatigue resistance, copper beryllium is widely used for springs, spring wire, load cells, and other parts that must retain their shape under cyclic loads.
- Bell Metal (High-tin Bronze). In general, bell metals usually refer to high-tin bronzes that are a family of copper-based alloys traditionally alloyed with tin, commonly with more than 20% of tin (typically, 78% copper, 22% tin by mass). Bell metal is used for the casting of high-quality bells. The higher tin content increases the rigidity of the metal and the resonance. It has been found that increasing the tin content increases the decay time of the bell strike, thus making the bell more sonorous. High-tin bronzes are also found in gears and high-strength bushing and bearing applications where high strength and heavy loads are present.
Uses and Application of Bronzes
Historically, alloying copper with another metal, for example, tin, to make bronze was first practiced about 4000 years after the discovery of copper smelting and about 2000 years after “natural bronze” had come into general use. An ancient civilization is defined in the Bronze Age as producing bronze by smelting its copper and alloying it with tin, arsenic, or other metals. The major applications of copper are electrical wire (60%), roofing and plumbing (20%), and industrial machinery (15%).
Copper is used mostly as a pure metal, but when greater hardness is required, it is put into such alloys as brass and bronze (5% of total use). Copper and copper-based alloys, including brasses (Cu-Zn) and bronzes (Cu-Sn), are widely used in industrial and societal applications. Some brass alloys include costume jewelry, locks, hinges, gears, bearings, ammunition casings, automotive radiators, musical instruments, electronic packaging, and coins. Bronze, or bronze-like alloys and mixtures, were used for coins over a longer period. It is still widely used for springs, bearings, bushings, automobile transmission pilot bearings, and similar fittings and is particularly common in the bearings of small electric motors today. Brass and bronze are common engineering materials in modern architecture and are primarily used for roofing and facade cladding due to their visual appearance.
Properties of Bronzes
Material properties are intensive properties, which means they are independent of the amount of mass and may vary from place to place within the system at any moment. Materials science involves studying materials’ structure and relating them to their properties (mechanical, electrical, etc.). Once materials scientist knows about this structure-property correlation, they can then go on to study the relative performance of a material in a given application. The major determinants of the structure of a material and thus of its properties are its constituent chemical elements and how it has been processed into its final form.
Mechanical Properties of Bronzes
Materials are frequently chosen for various applications because they have desirable combinations of mechanical characteristics. For structural applications, material properties are crucial, and engineers must consider them.
Strength of Bronzes
In the mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. The strengthof materials considers the relationship between the external loads applied to a material and the resulting deformation or change in material dimensions. The strengthof a material is its ability to withstand this applied load without failure or plastic deformation.
Ultimate Tensile Strength
The ultimate tensile strength of aluminium bronze – UNS C95400 is about 550 MPa.
The ultimate tensile strength of tin bronze – UNS C90500 – gun metal is about 310 MPa.
The ultimate tensile strength of copper beryllium – UNS C17200 is about 1380 MPa.
The ultimate tensile strength is the maximum on the engineering stress-strain curve. This corresponds to the maximum stress sustained by a structure in tension. Ultimate tensile strength is often shortened to “tensile strength” or “the ultimate.” If this stress is applied and maintained, a fracture will result. Often, this value is significantly more than the yield stress (as much as 50 to 60 percent more than the yield for some types of metals). When a ductile material reaches its ultimate strength, it experiences necking where the cross-sectional area reduces locally. The stress-strain curve contains no higher stress than the ultimate strength. Even though deformations can continue to increase, the stress usually decreases after achieving the ultimate strength. It is an intensive property; therefore, its value does not depend on the size of the test specimen. However, it depends on other factors, such as the specimen preparation, the presence or otherwise of surface defects, and the temperature of the test environment and material. Ultimate tensile strengths vary from 50 MPa for aluminum to as high as 3000 MPa for very high-strength steel.
The yield strength of aluminium bronze – UNS C95400 is about 250 MPa.
The yield strength of tin bronze – UNS C90500 – gun metal is about 150 MPa.
The yield strength of copper beryllium – UNS C17200 is about 1100 MPa.
The yield point is the point on a stress-strain curve that indicates the limit of elastic behavior and the beginning plastic behavior. Yield strength or yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. In contrast, the yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins. Before the yield point, the material will deform elastically and return to its original shape when the applied stress is removed. Once the yield point is passed, some fraction of the deformation will be permanent and non-reversible. Some steels and other materials exhibit a behavior termed a yield point phenomenon. Yield strengths vary from 35 MPa for low-strength aluminum to greater than 1400 MPa for high-strength steel.
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity
Young’s modulus of elasticity of aluminium bronze – UNS C95400 is about 110 GPa.
Young’s modulus of elasticity of tin bronze – UNS C90500 – gun metal is about 103 GPa.
Young’s modulus of elasticity of copper beryllium – UNS C17200 is about 131 GPa.
Young’s modulus of elasticity is the elastic modulus for tensile and compressive stress in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation and is usually assessed by tensile tests. Up to limiting stress, a body will be able to recover its dimensions on the removal of the load. The applied stresses cause the atoms in a crystal to move from their equilibrium position, and all the atoms are displaced the same amount and maintain their relative geometry. When the stresses are removed, all the atoms return to their original positions, and no permanent deformation occurs. According to Hooke’s law, the stress is proportional to the strain (in the elastic region), and the slope is Young’s modulus. Young’s modulus is equal to the longitudinal stress divided by the strain.
Hardness of Bronzes
Brinell hardness of aluminium bronze – UNS C95400 is approximately 170 MPa. The hardness of aluminum bronzes increases with aluminum (and other alloys) content and stresses caused by cold working.
Brinell hardness of tin bronze – UNS C90500 – gun metal is approximately 75 BHN.
Rockwell hardness of copper beryllium – UNS C17200 is approximately 82 HRB.
Rockwell hardness test is one of the most common indentation hardness tests developed for hardness testing. In contrast to the Brinell test, the Rockwell tester measures the depth of penetration of an indenter under a large load (major load) compared to the penetration made by a preload (minor load). The minor load establishes the zero position, and the major load is applied and removed while maintaining the minor load. The difference between the penetration depth before and after application of the major load is used to calculate the Rockwell hardness number. That is, the penetration depth and hardness are inversely proportional. The chief advantage of Rockwell hardness is its ability to display hardness values directly. The result is a dimensionless number noted as HRA, HRB, HRC, etc., where the last letter is the respective Rockwell scale.
The Rockwell C test is performed with a Brale penetrator (120°diamond cone) and a major load of 150kg.
Thermal Properties of Bronzes
Thermal propertiesof materials refer to the response of materials to changes in theirtemperature and the application of heat. As a solid absorbs energy in the form of heat, its temperature rises, and its dimensions increase. But different materials react to the application of heat differently.
Heat capacity, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity are often critical in solids’ practical use.
Melting Point of Bronzes
The melting point of aluminium bronze – UNS C95400 is around 1030°C.
The melting point of tin bronze – UNS C90500 – gun metal is around 1000°C.
The melting point of copper beryllium – UNS C17200 is around 866°C.
In general,meltingis aphase change of a substance from the solid to the liquid phase. Themelting point of a substance is the temperature at which this phase change occurs. Themelting pointalso defines a condition where the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium.
Thermal Conductivity of Bronzes
The thermal conductivity of aluminium bronze – UNS C95400 is 59 W/(m. K).
The thermal conductivity of tin bronze – UNS C90500 – gun metal is 75 W/(m. K).
The thermal conductivity of copper beryllium – UNS C17200 is 115 W/(m. K).
The heat transfer characteristics of solid material are measured by a property called the thermal conductivity, k (or λ), measured inW/m.K. It measures a substance’s ability to transfer heat through a material by conduction. Note that Fourier’s law applies to all matter, regardless of its state (solid, liquid, or gas). Therefore, it is also defined for liquids and gases.
Thethermal conductivity of most liquids and solids varies with temperature, and for vapors, it also depends upon pressure. In general:
Most materials are nearly homogeneous. Therefore we can usually write k = k (T). Similar definitions are associated with thermal conductivities in the y- and z-directions (ky, kz). However, for an isotropic material, the thermal conductivity is independent of the transfer direction, kx = ky = kz = k.
U.S. Department of Energy, Material Science. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.
U.S. Department of Energy, Material Science. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 2 and 2. January 1993.
William D. Callister, David G. Rethwisch. Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction 9th Edition, Wiley; 9 edition (December 4, 2013), ISBN-13: 978-1118324578.
Eberhart, Mark (2003). Why Things Break: Understanding the World by the Way It Comes Apart. Harmony. ISBN 978-1-4000-4760-4.
Gaskell, David R. (1995). Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials (4th ed.). Taylor and Francis Publishing. ISBN 978-1-56032-992-3.
González-Viñas, W. & Mancini, H.L. (2004). An Introduction to Materials Science. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-07097-1.
Ashby, Michael; Hugh Shercliff; David Cebon (2007). Materials: engineering, science, processing, and design (1st ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-8391-3.
J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
Properties of Bronze
Reddish-brown color. Hardness and brittleness (although typically it is less brittle than cast iron) Melting point of 950 degrees Celsius. High resistance to corrosion from saltwater.
Bronze is an alloy of copper which can vary widely in its composition. It is often used where a material harder than copper is required, where strength and corrosion resistance is required and for ornamental purposes.What do we use bronze for? ›
Bronze is used in the construction of sculptures, musical instruments and medals, and in industrial applications such as bushings and bearings, where its low metal on metal friction is an advantage. Bronze also has nautical applications because of its resistance to corrosion.What is the description of bronze? ›
: an alloy of copper and tin and sometimes other elements. : any of various copper-base alloys with little or no tin. : a sculpture or artifact of bronze. 3. : a moderate yellowish brown.What are the 3 main characteristics of Bronze Age? ›
The Bronze Age was characterized by the production of the metal bronze (an alloy of copper and tin), the development of a wide range of functional and precious metalwork, and an increase in economic productivity and the consequent emergence of skilled workers, many of whom were involved in artistic activity, albeit of ...How are the characteristics of bronze different from copper? ›
Copper has a distinctive reddish-brown color. Brass has a brighter yellowish-gold appearance. Bronze, meanwhile, is a duller gold or sepia color and will typically have faint rings on its surface. You can lightly strike the metal to test whether it is copper or an alloy.Where was bronze first used? ›
Western Asia and the Near East were the first regions to enter the Bronze Age, which began with the rise of the Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer in the mid-4th millennium BC.What is bronze made up of? ›
Brass and bronze are both metal alloys, which means they are a combination of two or more different metals. Brass is composed of copper and zinc, whereas bronze is made up of copper and tin, sometimes with other elements such as phosphorus or aluminium added in.What are the properties and uses of brass? ›
Due to its unique properties, which include corrosion resistance, common uses for brass include applications that require low friction. These applications can include fittings (fasteners and connectors), tools, appliance parts, and ammunition components.How strong is bronze? ›
How Strong Is Bronze? Bronze is considered the most durable and hardest metal available to human civilization. Bronze only rusted on the surface, which led to better tools, stronger structures, and sharper weapons made of bronze. Bronze is an alloy of tin and copper where 88% is copper, and 12% is tin.
Bronze is a metallic brown color which resembles the metal alloy bronze.Does bronze rust in water? ›
Fortunately, bronze doesn't contain iron, which means it won't corrode the same way ferrous metals do when exposed to water or moisture.What is a fact about bronze? ›
Bronze has been around for literal ages and is one of the most common alloys made today. One of the interesting facts about bronze is that it's made up of copper and tin, with tin accounting for roughly 12% of the alloy. Bronze made today, however, may substitute tin for other metals like aluminum, manganese, and zinc.What are 10 facts about the Bronze Age? ›
- The Bronze age was between 4000BC and 2000BC. ...
- The Bronze Age was in the middle of the Stone Age and the Iron Age. ...
- People used bronze to make weapons and tools. ...
- Metals were found by people mining for them. ...
- The wheel was invented! ...
- The first forms of writing started.
bronze, alloy traditionally composed of copper and tin. Modern bronze is typically 88 percent copper and about 12 percent tin.What are the different types of bronze? ›
- Silicon Bronze. Silicon bronze, sometimes called red silicon bronze, contains copper, silicon and zinc. ...
- Phosphor Bronze. ...
- Aluminum Bronze. ...
- Manganese Bronze. ...
- Bearing Bronze. ...
Bronze is hard and brittle. It melts at a slightly higher temperature at 950 centigrade, but this depends on the amount of tin present in the alloy.What are the advantages and disadvantages of using bronze? ›
Bronze resists corrosion and metal fatigue better, and conducts heat and electricity, better than most steels. Disadvantages: Bronzes are generally softer, weaker and more expensive than steel.What are the mechanical properties of bronze? ›
|Tensile strength, ultimate||240 MPa||34800 psi|
|Tensile strength, yield (@strain 0.500%)||125 MPa||18100 psi|
|Elongation at break (in 50 mm)||20.00%||20.00%|
|Modulus of elasticity||100 GPa||14500 ksi|
Bronze is usually nonmagnetic, but certain alloys containing iron or nickel may have magnetic properties.
“Making bronze was a major technological innovation over copper. It's a stronger alloy and easier to cast into complex shapes and longer weapons.” The following eight Bronze Age weapons began to appear in the archeological record around 2,200 B.C.Was bronze used for weapons? ›
Around 3000 BC, the manufacture of bronze spread from the early Mesopotamian cities to Persia where it was commonly used to create weapons, ornaments and fittings for chariots. One of the earliest well dated bronze objects, a knife, was found in the Gansu province of China which had been cast in a mold.Is bronze a stone or metal? ›
Bronze is a dull gold-colored metal that's used to make musical instruments, sculptures, and coins. If you get a bronze medal in the Olympics, you came in third place — nice job! Bronze is an alloy of copper, tin, and other metals.Does the bronze rust? ›
Bronze does not rust due to its minimal iron content. Keep in mind, however, bronze can react to oxygen in other ways. Bronze is not naturally occurring like pure aluminum or iron. Instead, bronze is a mixture of copper and tin.Does bronze burn in fire? ›
Any of you can work copper and bronze in a simple fire you can build at home. This is because both metals have a low melting point. A simple wood fire will provide all the heat needed to melt either metal.What are the 5 uses of brass? ›
Brass is still commonly used in applications where corrosion resistance and low friction are required, such as locks, hinges, gears, bearings, ammunition casings, zippers, plumbing, hose couplings, valves, and electrical plugs and sockets.Why is brass more useful? ›
What is brass used for? Brass has a high tensile strength and is easy to machine. This makes it ideal for intricate and low-friction parts, like locks, gears, valves and bearings. Its high corrosion resistance is good for outdoor use, plumbing components and naval/marine applications.Can bronze break easily? ›
Understanding the Malleability of Bronze
It can only tolerate so much pressure before finally breaking. In fact, regular bronzes have the tendency to become brittle when applied with an abrupt force. Bronze's malleability depends on the amount of copper and tin and the crystal structure of their molecules.
In solid form, bronze is not hazardous. In dust or fume form: carcinogen, irritant, lung toxin, sensitizer. The hazard classes listed above are based on the presence of nickel and cobalt metals (both present at >0.1%). If exposed or concerned: Get medical advice or attention (P308+P313).Does bronze turn green? ›
Sounds strange, but it's true! Bronze is an alloy that contains copper, which can oxidize when combined with moisture, creating patina. This reaction creates that green tint of copper carbonate on your skin after wearing a piece for awhile.
- Step 1: Mix 2/3 cup vinegar and 2/3 cup flour in a glass bowl.
- Step 2: Add 1/2 cup salt and stir.
- Step 3: Spread on tarnished metal. Wait 1 to 2 hours.
- Step 4: Rinse, dry and polish with a soft cloth and a dab of olive oil.
So, the ability to produce large numbers of iron weapons overcame the advantages of bronze. Eventually, time and further development allowed for the production of these so-called legendary swords which supplanted bronze as the weapon material of choice for the nobility.Why does bronze turn purple? ›
Two molecules of carbon dioxide and one molecule of water reacting with three molecules of copper dioxide form azurite, which gives bronze a shade of blue or purple.What does salt do to bronze? ›
You may think that well-known corrosion-resistant metals like copper, bronze, and brass might pull it off but the truth is they, too, will corrode when dipped in salt solution.Does salt damage bronze? ›
Bronzes buried in salty environments can absorb salt over the years, and after excavation, the salt remains within the slightly porous bronze structure. Salt is bad for all metals, but in copper alloys it works in a particularly damaging recurring cycle.Why does old bronze turn green? ›
Why do brass, bronze and copper turn green? All of these metals contain copper. When copper reacts with oxygen, it oxidizes and generates a greenish-blue layer that protects the metal from further corrosion. Any metal that contains a high amount of copper can turn green.How was bronze created? ›
Bronze was made by heating the metals tin and copper and mixing them together. As the two metals melted, they combined to form liquid bronze. This was poured into clay or sand molds and allowed to cool.Why is bronze made? ›
Bronze is made when copper is heated and mixed with tin, creating a stronger metal than copper. Materials like wood and stone were also used for tools, but bronze was better for cutting and chopping, and was easy to shape.What are the characteristics of Bronze Age art? ›
The characteristics of Bronze Age European art include repetitive design motifs and the use of materials such as bronze, gold, clay, and rock. Southern European Bronze Age art appears to be more advanced in comparison to other parts of Europe.What is the characteristic of brass and bronze? ›
Brass and bronze are both metal alloys, which means they are a combination of two or more different metals. Brass is composed of copper and zinc, whereas bronze is made up of copper and tin, sometimes with other elements such as phosphorus or aluminium added in.
Brass is a low-friction, soft, non-ferrous metal which is easily drilled, machined, sawed and punched. Brass is an excellent choice for components in which corrosion-resistance is important.
Bronze resists corrosion and metal fatigue better, and conducts heat and electricity, better than most steels. Disadvantages: Bronzes are generally softer, weaker and more expensive than steel.What are the 5 characteristics of an artwork? ›
The traditional way of looking at art, namely the visual arts, suggests that there are five basic elements of an artwork – line, shape, color, texture and space.When was bronze used in art? ›
The origins of bronze sculpture
As a result, the first uses of bronze were in the creation of tools and weaponry. This continued for the first millennia of the Bronze Age and it wasn't until around 2300BC that The Dancing Girl, the first known bronze sculpture, was created.